Mishcon de Reya page structure
Site header
Main menu
Main content section
Africa House

A Guide to MEES: The Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards


This note gives an overview of how the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards (or “MEES”) will affect commercial properties. Different rules apply to residential properties.

In a nutshell, the new rules require landlords to upgrade energy inefficient properties before renting them out. Since 1st April 2018, it has been against the law to rent out premises with a low energy rating. Then with effect from 1st April 2023, even existing leases have become unlawful if the premises have a low rating.

A property is caught by the rules if its EPC (energy performance certificate) has a rating of “F” or “G”. Until recently, Government policy was that these minimum ratings would be raised in the future:

  • From 2027, properties with a rating of "D" or "E" would also be caught by the rules;
  • From 2030, even properties with a "C" rating would be caught, so the minimum legal grade would be "B".

However, in November 2023 the Government announced an intention to 'update' these minimum energy efficiency timelines to allow 'sufficient lead in time for landlords and the supply chain'.  No further details of the Government's plans are yet available, but it appears that an increase in the minimum energy rating may be delayed.

What are the rules?

The rules have been implemented in two phases:

  1. Since 1st April 2018, it has been against the law for a landlord to grant a new lease of commercial property with an EPC rating of F or G. This also prevents subleases and lease renewals.
  2. Since 1st April 2023, it has been against the law for a landlord to continue to let a commercial property with an F or G rating. This means that a lease that was legal when granted became unlawful in April 2023.

Unless, in either case, an exemption applies – see below.

These rules were originally brought in by the UK to implement an EU Directive. However, MEES is here to stay, even though the UK has now left the European Union.

Existing records suggest that around 10% of commercial properties have an F or G rating. It takes time to upgrade properties, so landlords cannot simply ignore MEES.

Will MEES apply to all commercial properties?

Not quite – the following properties are excluded from MEES entirely:

  1. A property which does not require an EPC (e.g. certain listed buildings; temporary buildings; and, in limited circumstances, buildings which are due to be demolished).
  2. A property which does not in fact have a valid EPC. To be valid, an EPC must be no more than 10 years old and be the most recent EPC for the property.
  3. A property let for a term of six months or less (unless there is a right of renewal beyond six months, or at the time of the grant of the lease, the tenant has already been in occupation for more than 12 months).
  4. A property let for a term of 99 years or more.
  5. A property occupied under a licence to occupy, assuming it is genuinely a licence and not a lease. The regulations only catch leases or tenancies.

For as long as a property falls into any of the above categories, no further consideration needs to be given to MEES as the rules currently stand.  

Full exemptions (valid for five years)

If a property is caught by MEES, then the landlord may still let it (even with a grade F or G rating) if one of the following exemptions apply: 

  1. The landlord has carried out the recommended energy improvement works, but the property still has an F or G rating.
  2. The recommended energy improvements do not pay for themselves in energy savings over a seven-year period. The regulations prescribe a detailed formula for this purpose.
  3. The landlord has failed to obtain third party consent which is needed for the works, despite using reasonable efforts to do so, or consent has been given subject to a condition with which the landlord cannot reasonably comply. This would include the consent of a tenant, a superior landlord, a mortgagee, or the local planning authority.
  4. The landlord has obtained a report by an independent surveyor, which says that:
    1. making the energy improvements would reduce the property’s value by more than 5%; or
    2. where the relevant improvements relate to wall insulation, they could have a negative impact on the fabric or structure of the property.

The landlord must register its exemption on a central online register. 

An exemption lasts for five years and is personal to the landlord. So if the landlord sells the property, the new owner must apply for a fresh exemption.  

The Government’s MEES guidance states that the exemption for lack of tenant consent only remains valid so long as that tenant remains the tenant. So if the tenant assigns the lease, the landlord would have to seek fresh consent from the new tenant. However, this is not reflected in the MEES regulations and the guidance note is not legally binding.

Temporary exemptions (valid for six months)

There are also some temporary exemptions, designed to give landlords a six-month breathing space where they have recently taken on a lease. For example:  

  1. The landlord has bought a property which is subject to an existing lease.
  2. The lease has been renewed pursuant to the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954.
  3. The lease has been granted pursuant to a contractual obligation, e.g. an agreement for lease.

These temporary exemptions must also be registered on the central register. When the six months have expired, the landlord must either carry out the necessary energy improvements, or register a “full” exemption.  

Penalties for breach 

The landlord will be liable to pay a civil penalty of up to 20% of the rateable value of the property, capped at £150,000.

The landlord’s details will also be put on a “name and shame” register. 

No penalties will be payable by the tenant. The lease will remain valid and the tenant will still be liable to pay the rent and observe the lease covenants.  

MEES will be enforced by local authorities, but it is not yet clear if they will be allowed to keep the cash raised from penalties. If they are, then cash-strapped local authorities may be more rigorous in clamping down on breaches.  

To date, however, there seems to have been very little enforcement of the MEES rules in practice.  

Practical questions: leases 

It is important to remember that MEES imposes obligations on landlords, not tenants. So a landlord will not be able to pass these obligations onto a tenant under the typical tenant’s covenant to comply with statute.  

Will a landlord still be able to recover MEES-related costs from tenants?  

For a full repairing and insuring lease of whole, no (unless the lease contains a specific clause to this effect, which many tenants may not accept).  

For a lease of part, the landlord may be able to recover some MEES costs through the service charge, but this depends on the exact wording of the lease.  

What should a lease say about MEES costs? 

From a landlord’s viewpoint, it may be best for the lease to stay silent on the costs of complying with MEES. If a landlord tries to add a clause saying MEES costs can be recovered through the service charge, this may simply prompt the tenant into amending this to say the exact opposite.  

From a tenant’s perspective, it is worth trying to get an express carve-out of all MEES costs.  

Tenant alterations

It seems fair that a lease should contain an express covenant against the tenant carrying out alterations which adversely affect energy efficiency, whatever the current rating of the building. Otherwise, there is a risk that works carried out by a tenant could lower the EPC rating and prevent the landlord reletting after the tenant has left. 

Tenant’s ability to commission its own EPC 

A landlord may want to restrict this in the lease, as a new EPC invalidates an old one. This could cause the landlord problems if the new certificate has a lower rating.  

Landlord’s right to carry out energy improvements 

Often it may be preferable for landlords not to reserve an express right to do these, assuming they would rather have the option of postponing the works. This is because if the tenant refuses consent to the landlord doing the works, then the landlord would have an exemption to rely on. 

Rent review

If a property is grade F or G, this could affect rent review. The tenant could argue that it is not lawful to grant the hypothetical lease, so the market rent should be zero.  

In practice, the rent should already take into account the condition of the property, including the low energy rating. Landlords will therefore seek to include an assumption on review that the property may lawfully be let.  

What about agreements for lease?

A landlord and tenant are allowed to enter into an agreement for lease of a grade F or G property. It is only granting the lease itself that is prohibited.  

In many cases a new agreement for lease may be an opportunity to agree a landlord’s retrofit or tenant’s fitting-out works, leading to a new higher-grade EPC before the lease is granted.  

Practical questions: buying an investment property 

EPCs are key. The first thing for a buyer to do (even before making an offer) is to look at the EPC and recommendation report. If the seller does not produce an EPC at the marketing stage, then if an EPC exists, you can find it online by searching for “EPC register commercial”.  

The buyer should check how old the EPC is, and ask for more information about the basis on which it was produced. The more detail which was given to the EPC assessor about the building design and plant and machinery, the more accurate the EPC will be. Even if an EPC shows a D or E rating, if this was based on inaccurate assumptions then a revised EPC rating could be lower (or higher).  

If the seller has relied on an exemption, the buyer will need to see full details. For example, a copy of the independent surveyor’s report or, for the payback test exemption, copies of the quotes obtained for energy improvement works.  

If the buyer cannot or does not want to do the improvement works, it will need to check the exemption still applies and then register its own exemption within six months of the purchase.  

If no exemption is available, then the buyer must factor in the costs of carrying out energy improvement works and consider whether a price chip is appropriate.  

A lender will also need to consider these points. If a property cannot be let without energy improvements being carried out, this will obviously affect the value of the security.  

Plans for reform 

It has always been clear that the minimum grade E threshold would be raised. Tough action is needed to meet the UK's carbon reduction targets. The Government estimated in 2021 that its proposed target of a minimum grade B by 2030 would increase the proportion of commercial properties which fail the MEES test from 10% to a whopping 85%.

A consultation launched in spring 2021 suggests the following future changes may be enacted (although as we have noted above, it is now possible that the 2027 and 2030 milestone dates referred to below may be delayed):

  • An interim milestone of grade C by 2027 is proposed to ensure early action is taken by landlords. If the EPC rating of a commercial rented property is below C, the landlord must upgrade to a C rating by 2027, or register an exemption.
  • Landlords must then upgrade the property to grade B by 2030, or register another exemption. In practice, of course, it may be more cost-effective to upgrade directly to a B by 2027.
  • The trigger for complying with MEES will no longer be linked to the grant of a lease. All commercial rented properties must achieve a grade C by 2027 and grade B by 2030, regardless of when they are let.
  • Properties will be required to have a current EPC for the whole time they are let. This will remove the existing rule that exempts a property from complying with energy standards if it has no current EPC.
  • Moving compliance away from point of let will reduce the current difficulties where a building is let in a shell and core state. This should give the parties time to work together and ensure a building is compliant, or register an exemption.
  • More onus on tenants? The current regulations put the onus on the landlord, but a tenant's fit out can affect the final EPC rating. The Government is considering duties on tenants to share responsibility for MEES compliance, although no further detail has yet been given.
  • Listed buildings: The Government proposes clarifying the rules so that all listed buildings must have an EPC, but can then register an exemption from MEES if listed building consent cannot be obtained for energy efficiency improvements.
  • Payback test: This provides an exemption if the cost of the works cannot be recovered in energy savings over a seven-year period. The current requirement to obtain three quotes is seen as onerous, so this will be replaced by a more efficient payback calculator providing standardised costs.
  • Enforcement: A centralised database will give local authorities data for enforcement. In addition, agents will only be permitted to market properties which are already MEES compliant.

This briefing note is only intended as a general statement of the law and no action should be taken in reliance on it without specific legal advice.

Subscribe to our mailings

Keep up to date with news, publications and briefings


Contact us

If you have an enquiry or would simply like to find out more about us, please get in touch.

Get in touch
How can we help you?

How can we help you?

Subscribe: I'd like to keep in touch

If your enquiry is urgent please call +44 20 3321 7000

Crisis Hotline

I'm a client

I'm looking for advice

Something else